Study Finds Milk Levels Chemicals Mothers


A recent study has found that chemicals used in everyday products, such as food packaging and personal care items, are present in the breast milk of mothers. The study, conducted by researchers at the University of Notre Dame, analyzed breast milk samples from 50 women in the United States and found that every sample contained at least one type of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS).

PFAS are a group of chemicals that are used in a variety of products, including non-stick cookware, water-resistant clothing, and firefighting foam. They are known to be persistent in the environment and can accumulate in the body over time. This study is the first to show that PFAS are present in breast milk at levels that are concerning for human health.

Methods Used in the Study

The researchers collected breast milk samples from 50 women in the United States and analyzed them for the presence of PFAS. They used a method called liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to identify and quantify the levels of PFAS in the samples.

The women in the study were between the ages of 18 and 43 and gave birth at a hospital in Indiana. They were asked to provide breast milk samples within two weeks of giving birth and again at three, six, and nine months postpartum. The samples were then analyzed for 29 different types of PFAS.

Results of the Study

The study found that every breast milk sample contained at least one type of PFAS. The most commonly detected PFAS was perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), which was found in all 50 samples. The median concentration of PFOA was 0.92 nanograms per milliliter (ng/mL), which is higher than the median concentration found in a previous study of breast milk in 2004.

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The study also found that the levels of PFAS in breast milk decreased over time. The highest concentrations were found in the first milk samples collected within two weeks of giving birth, and the lowest concentrations were found in the samples collected at nine months postpartum. However, even the lowest concentrations were still concerning for human health.

Discussion of the Study

The presence of PFAS in breast milk is concerning because these chemicals have been linked to a variety of health problems, including cancer, thyroid disease, and developmental problems in children. The levels of PFAS found in the breast milk samples are especially concerning for infants, who are more vulnerable to the effects of these chemicals.

The study’s findings have important implications for public health and policy. It highlights the need for stricter regulations on the use of PFAS in everyday products, as well as the need for more research on the health effects of these chemicals. The researchers also recommend that women who are pregnant or breastfeeding take steps to reduce their exposure to PFAS, such as avoiding non-stick cookware and water-resistant clothing.

In conclusion, the study’s findings highlight the urgent need to address the widespread use of PFAS in everyday products and the potential health risks associated with exposure to these chemicals. It is crucial that policymakers take action to regulate the use of PFAS and that individuals take steps to reduce their exposure to these harmful substances.

Limitations of the Study

While the study provides important insights into the levels of PFAS in breast milk, there are some limitations to consider. For one, the sample size was relatively small, with only 50 women participating in the study. Additionally, the study was conducted in a single geographic location, which means that the findings may not be representative of breast milk samples from other parts of the world.

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Another limitation is that the study did not assess the potential health effects of PFAS in breast milk. While the levels detected in the study were concerning, further research is needed to determine the health impacts of exposure to these chemicals through breast milk.


The findings of this study are concerning and highlight the need for greater regulation of PFAS in the products we use every day. Breast milk is an important source of nutrition for infants, and exposure to these chemicals could have long-term health impacts.

It is important that policymakers take action to reduce exposure to PFAS in the environment, as well as in consumer products. This could include measures like banning the use of these chemicals in food packaging or requiring companies to disclose the use of PFAS in their products.

Future research should also focus on the health impacts of exposure to PFAS through breast milk. This could include studies that look at the long-term health outcomes of infants who are exposed to high levels of these chemicals, as well as the potential impacts on maternal health. By continuing to study the impacts of PFAS, we can better understand the risks associated with these chemicals and take steps to protect public health.